Since the India’s economy began to be opened up 25 years ago, the GST (Goods & Services Tax) is the biggest reform now converting into a big reality. Today the constitution (122nd) Amendment Bill has come up in Rajya Sabha, on the back of a board political consensus and boosted by the Good Wishes of the congress, which hold the crucial cards on its passage.
Let’s take an example to study the GST, its working and what are the effects of GST after parliament passes the Bill.
In the GST regime-
Consider a manufacturer of shoes; he buys a raw material or input- sole, insole Board, chemical & stiffener sheet, non-woven, PU and PVC, synthetic leather, etc. worth Rs 1000, a sum that includes a tax of Rs 100 on the raw material of these shoes.
To the process of creating the shoes, the manufacture adds value to the materials he started with out with. Let’s take this value of Rs 300. Now the gross value of goods is 1000+300= 1300, the tax Rate of 10%, the tax on output will then be Rs 130 but under the GST, he can set off this tax (Rs130) against the tax he has already paid on raw material (Rs100) therefore, the effective GST incidence on the manufacture is only Rs 30 (Rs130-100).
Now the goods come to the Wholesaler in bulk, he purchases it for Rs 1300 and add on value (margin) of Say Rs 200 now the gross value of gold is Rs 1300+200=Rs1500. and a tax of 10% amount will be Rs 150. But again under GST he can set off the tax on his output (Rs150) against the tax on his purchased food from the manufacturer (Rs 130) thus, the effective GST incidence on the wholesaler is only Rs 20 (Rs150-130).
It is the final stage; a retailer buys a shoe from the wholesaler. To his purchase price of Rs 1500, he added his value (margin) of Rs 100 now the gross value of goods is 1500+100=Rs 1600.on the 10% tax will apply on the Rs 1600 is 160. But by the setting of the tax (160) against the tax on his purchase from the wholesaler (Rs 150) the retailer brings down the effective GST incidence on himself to Rs 10 (Rs160-150)
Now the total GST from the above Chian is Rs 100+30+20+10= Rs 160.
The non-GST system is a cascading burden of TAX ON TAX here no set-offs fro taxes paid on input or on previous purchase. Let’s take the same example we took above
The MANUFACTURER buys the raw material at Rs1000 after paying Tax of Rs 100, the gross value of food is now 1300 on which he pays a tax of Rs 130. But here, is now set off value against Rs 100 so sold the good at Rs 1430 (Rs 1300+130).
Now the WHOLESALER adds value of Rs200 on now the gross value is Rs 1630, and a tax of 10% will increase it up to Rs 1793.
Now the RETAILER buys the good on Rs 1793 and convert its gross value of Rs 2082.3 which include Rs 100 and a tax of Rs 189.3.
So the non-GST regime total tax includes Rs (100+130+163+189.3=582.3)
And finally consumer got better on Rs1500+582. 3= Rs 2082.3
Compare this tax RS 2082.3 with the tax of Rs 582.3 so the final price of Rs 2664.6 includes the tax of Rs 160 under the GST.
WHAT HAPPEN IF GST APLLY IN INDIA AND IT WILL REPLACE THESE-
l Central excise duty.
l Duties of excise (medical and toilet).
l Additional duties of exercise (goods of special importance, textile and its products and CVD).
l Special additional duty of custom
l Service tax
l Cases and surcharges in so far as they relate to supply of goods or services.
GST WILL SUBSUME STATE TAXES-
- State VAT
- Central sales TAX
- Purchase TAX
- Luxury TAX
- Entertainment TAX
- TAXES on advertisements
- TAXES on lotteries, betting and gambling.
l BIGGEST BENEFIT is that it will disincentives tax evasion. If you don’t pay tax on what you sell, you don’t get credit for taxes on your inputs. Also, you will buy only from those who have already paid taxes on what they are supplying. Result: a lot of currently underground transactions will come overground.
l LOWER TAX RATES will follow from GST covering all goods and services, with tax only on value addition and set-offs against taxes on inputs/previous purchases. Right now, we have more tax on fewer items; with GST, there will be less tax on more items. Ideally, no good or service should be tax-exempt, as this will break the input tax chain.
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